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UK
Data
Clansman
  
BID/460   PALLADIAN
Data encryption unit

BID/460 and BID/460/1, also known as PALLADIAN, is a data encryption unit, used by the British Army, probably during the 1980s. It was used as part of the CLANSMAN Combat Radio Network (1976-2010), for the Battlefield Artillery Target Engagement System (BATES). The BID/460/1 unit was supplied as a plug-in unit for the Stand Alone Network Interface Equipment (SANIE) [1].

The device is housed in a die-cast aluminium enclosure that measures 180 × 160 × 56 mm and weights 1280 grams. It is suitable for the encryption of a digital 16 kbit/s data stream. According to [3] it is the first military device in the UK in which the encryption was entirely done in software. In previous devices, the encryption was always implemented in a dedicated chip. The encryption algorithm is currently unknown.

The SANIE host device can be com­pared to a Clansman Digital Master Unit (DMU). It acts as a carrier for the BID/460 encryp­tion unit, which must be installed into a slot at its top left.
  

Please help
Crypto Museum are still looking for additional information about the BID/460/1. Especially technical information and information about its use would be useful. We would also like to find a SANIE device into which the BID/460 can be installed. If you have anything that can help us to expand this page, please contact us.

BID/460
Rear view
Bottom side
Clock board - solder side
Interior
BID/460 (Palladian)
BID/460 front panel
A
×
A
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BID/460
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Rear view
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Bottom side
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Clock board - solder side
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Interior
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BID/460 (Palladian)
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BID/460 front panel

Features
The image below shows the front panel of the BID/460 with both protective caps removed from the connectors (SK1 and PL2), SK1 is used for the connection of a data device, whilst PL2 is used for the connection of a DS-102 compatible FILL device (key loader), such as the KYK-13 or KOI-18. The FILL device is used for storing 128-bit cryptographic keys into the BID/460. At the rear right corner is a 9-pin DE-9 plug by which the device is connected to the SANIE host device.


At the front are three controls and two indicators. The FILLED indicator will light up when a crypto­graphic key has successfully been loaded into the device. The built in self-test (BITE) can be executed by briefly toggling the BITE switch, after which the BITE indicator shows the result. The switch CLEAR/SECURE selects between clear (unencrypted) and secure (encrypted) communi­ca­tion. In case of an emergency, the ERASE button can be pressed to purge the cryptographic keys instantly. This procedure is known as ZEROIZING and can also be used when the device is off.


Interior
BID/460 (Palladian) is housed in a compartmented die-cast aluminium enclosure, in which five printed circuit board (PCBs) are mounted. The interior can be accessed by removing a large panel from the top and a smaller one from the bottom. As some of the PCBs are stacked, the drawing below should give an idea of their location. The three stacked PCBs (A1a, A2b and A2c) each hold a large confidential sub-circuit in the form of a hybrid circuit on a ceramic substrate. Each of these hybrids are marked RESTRICTED and two are marked Controlled Cryptographic Item (CCI).


The two encryption boards (A2b, A2c) are wired to the front panel PCB via a flatcable. They are responsible for encryption/decryption of the RED/BLACK interfaces respectively. A clock board, which provides the timing for the RED and BLACK interfaces, is located at the bottom. From the date codes on the various parts, it seems likely that the device shown here was made in 1988.

Board A2a
At the top of the stack is board A2a, which is the internal power supply. It holds several passive components, three large transis­tors and a potted hybrid circuit on a white cera­mic substrate, marked TFD 2886/A RESTRICTED. It is made by Marconi Electronic Devices Ltd. (MEDL).

The board is connected to the next board (A2b) via a blue 42-pin socket. It is also connected to the front panel, via a black 14-pin socket.

  

Board A2b
Board A2b holds a large hybrid circuit on a white ceramic substrate. It has components at both sides. The upper side holds an NSC800 micro­pro­cessor, three 27C64 EPROMs a set of buffers and a custom chip with glue logic.

The bottom side holds a large struc­ture, which is barely visible as the hybrid is soldered directly to the PCB. The board is wired to the previous and the next board via a 42-pin connector. It is also wired to the front panel via a 16-pin flatcable.

  

Board A2c
Board A2c is similar (but not identical) to board A2b. It holds the large hybrid circuit shown in the image on the right. The upper side holds an NSC800 micro­processor, two EPROMs, buffers, RAM and additional logic.

The bottom side holds a large struc­ture, which is barely visible as the hybrid is soldered directly to the PCB. The board is wired to the previous and the next board via a 42-pin connector. It is also wired to the front panel via a 10-pin flatcable.

  

Clock board
The clock board is common to the RED and BLACK interfaces, and is located at the bottom of the die-cast enclosure, in a separate compart­ment. It is wired to the upper section via a series of feed-through filters.

The compartment at the bottom also holds the wiring to the 9-pin DE-9 connector at the bot­tom right corner of the rear panel. It connects the device to the SANIE host module and pro­vides power (from SANIE) to the BID/460.
  

The large structures at the bottom of the hybrids on boards A2b and A2c cannot be identified without desoldering the hybrids from the carrier boards. It is currently unknown which encryption algorithm was used, but it is likely that it uses a common UK/USA/NATO standard like BATON. According the [3], it is the first UK encryption device in which the algorithm was implemented in software, rather than by means of a dedicated Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC).

Restricted module
Interior with custom hybrid
Custom hybrid
Empty slot for restricted module
Custom hybrid
Clock generator
Clock board - component side
Wiring feed-throughs
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Restricted module
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Interior with custom hybrid
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Custom hybrid
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Empty slot for restricted module
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Custom hybrid
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Clock generator
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Clock board - component side
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Wiring feed-throughs

Connections
FILL connector   PL2
At the front panel is a standard U229 receptacle for connection of a DS-102 compatible FILL device, such as the KOI-18 and KYK-13. The connector follows the standard USA/NATO layout. Below is the pinout when looking into the receptacle.  More about the U229 connector

  1. GND
    Ground
  2. SWG
    Switched ground
  3. ACK
    Fill request acknowledgment
  4. DATA
    Fill data into BID/460
  5. CLK
    Fill clock into BID/460
  6. ?
Data connector   SK1
At the left edge of the front panel is a 6-pin socket (SK1) for connection of a data device. The connector type and the wiring is currently unknown.

  1. ?
  2. ?
  3. ?
  4. ?
  5. ?
  6. ?
SANIE connector
The rear right edge is an 9-pin DE-9/P plug that mates with a DE-9/S socket inside the slot at the top left of the SANIE host device. It carries the power supplied and in the in/out interface to SANIE. The wring of this connector is currently unknown.

  1. ?
  2. ?
  3. ?
  4. ?
  5. ?
  6. ?
  7. ?
  8. ?
  9. ?
Specifications
  • Device
    Data encryption unit
  • Purpose
    Secure military data traffic for CLANSMAN BATES
  • Model
    BID/460
  • Codename
    Palladium
  • Country
    UK
  • Year
    1986 (?)
  • Developer
    CESG
  • Network
    BATES
  • Algorithm
    ?
  • Data
    16 kb/s
  • Power
    ?
  • Backup
    Lithium battery 7V (NSN 6135-99-517-2649)
  • Dimensions
    180 × 160 × 56 mm
  • Weight
    1280 g
References
  1. HMVF forum (various members), Identification please? (SANIE and BID/460/1)
    Historic Military Vehicles Forum. 24 October 2021 — 9 April 2015.
    Retrieved 5 October 2021.

  2. Jerry Proc and contributors, BID/460 (Palladian) and SANIE
    16 March 2015.

  3. Philips Jobson, Royal Artillery: Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations ...
    ISBN 978-07-50980-07-4. The History Press, 2016.
Further information
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Crypto Museum. Created: Monday 08 February 2016. Last changed: Friday, 14 June 2024 - 08:48 CET.
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