Apparently, the NSA was not too happy with the fact that DES, which was
considered a strong encryption algorithm at the time, was available to the
general public. At the request of the NSA, Philips took the DES-based machines
off the market 1 and had the algorithm replaced by an alternative one
that was supplied by the NSA.
Although it was suggested that the alternative algorithm
was similar in strength to DES, this does not make much sense.
It seems far more likely, that it was deliberately weakened.
Such weakening is commonly known as a backdoor. 2
The rather obscure relation between
and the NSA has been
the subject of discussion for some time, for example in Marcel
Metze's article Ingelijfd door de NSA (Embedded in the NSA)
of January 2014 . In this article, Metze explains how a Philips
engineer first visits the NSA in 1977. A few years later, Philips
was allowed to implemented the NSA's
highly secret SAVILLE encryption algorithm
in their forthcoming cryptophones
and Spendex 50 (DBT).
In the past, the DES implementation
of the initial PX-1000 version has been
analysed and inspected for 'backdoors', and was found to be correct .
As the later PX-1000Cr -
with the alternative NSA algorithm - was freely
available on the market and its firmware was not protected in any way,
a Crypto Museum team has now disassembled and inspected the
The PX-1000 was available worldwide for several years
from big companies like Philips, Siemens, Alcatel and Ericsson,
and was used by prominent people such as Nelson Mandela
and to some extent by the Dutch Government's Foreign Office.
In this light, it would be very interesting to know
to what security risks the people or
organisations involved may have been exposed to.
➤ More about the PX-1000
This was done by selling the entire stock of 12,000 units to the Americans
for NLG 16.6 million.
Technically speaking, a deliberate weakening is not a
backdoor, but since it is applied to provide unauthorised access,
we will use that popular expression in this context.
The first PX-1000
units appeared on the market in 1980, a year after the
device was developed by Text Lite BV
in Amsterdam (Netherlands). From the outset, the PX-1000 was capable
of sending and receiving messages in encrypted form, using the
Data Encryption Standard (DES) 
as obtained from the American Bureau of Standards (now: NIST).
was selling the PX-1000 in 1983, the NSA intervened
and asked them to replace DES by an alternative algorithm.
The diagram above shows the memory map of the PX-1000, which consists of
64 KB of address space, divided over 4 sections of 16KB each (numbered 0-3).
Section (0) contains the internal registers, a small amount of RAM and
the external 4KB RAM. Sections (1)
and (2) are used for the keyboard and
the display respectively.
The actual firmware is stored in a ROM or EPROM that is mapped
in the upper 8KB of the address space of section (3)
(addresses 0xE000 to 0xFFF).
In 2014, Bachelor student Ben Brücker investigated both algorithms,
using ROM dumps of the two PX-1000 variants,
as supplied by Crypto Museum [A].
In his Bachelor Thesis , he scrutinises the original DES implementation
and comes to the conclusion that it has been implemented correctly. Furthermore,
he roughly describes the PC-1000Cr algorithm
and comes to the conclusion that it is a stream cipher, but that further
research is needed to determine its strength or weakness.
➤ Download the ROMs
➤ Download the Bachelor Thesis
Based on the earlier research
and persistent rumours of a possible
backdoor in the NSA-supplied algorithm,
a Crypto Museum team consisting of Cees Janssen,
Paul Reuvers and Marc Simons, has now started to isolate the algorithm from
the code and analyse its properties. Their preliminary findings are reported
below. Please note that this page will be updated as the research continues.
The PX-1000Cr cryptographic algorithm is a stream cipher with
cipher feedback (CFB).
The driving function is the 16-byte array (L),
that implements four different
Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) of lengths 27, 29, 31 and 32 bits.
Bytes L7-L10 are rotated right by 2 positions
(ROR 2) before they are XOR-ed with bytes L0-L3.
The block denoted by (F)
consists of a set of 8 nonlinear functions
of 6 bits to one output bit. It is implemented as a compact lookup table.
The (P) block in the feedback loop consists of a set
of 4 different nibble permutations (p1-p3),
i.e. Boolean functions of 4 bits input and 4 bits output,
that are identical for the high and low order 4 bits of a byte.
These functions are implemented as compact lookup tables.
Block (V) is an 8 byte register (in two parts)
in which the secret encryption key is stored.
Block (C) is a 4 byte FIFO register that contains the 4 most recent
crypto text bytes, resulting in an error extension of 4 bytes.
Note that each byte is rotated left by one position, before shifting
place in the FIFO.
Register (K) holds the key stream byte,
which is added to a plaintext byte to obtain a crypto byte.
There is no random fill of any register.
Initially the (L) and
(C) arrays are filled with secret key bits
that are derived from the secret encryption key entered by the user.
Because of the 7-bits ASCII format used by the PX-1000,
the cipher text reveals one plain keystream bit for every encrypted
character. Moreover, the first character in the cipher text is an
encrypted fixed character.
Although we are still in the early stages of our research,
we may already conclude
that the cryptographic algorithm used in the PX-1000Cr is substantially
weaker than the DES algorithm of the
other PX-1000 versions.
To be continued...
The intervention by the NSA
took place in 1983. By 1984, revised PX-1000
units with the NSA-supplied cryptographic algorithm
were available on the market. In 1986, the PX-1000 was used for
the secret communication between
the anti-apartheids movement in Europe and dissident Nelson Mandela 
(the later President of South Africa) in his Pollsmore prison cell.
This way, Mandela's political partly, the ANC, prepared
him for his expected release in 1990.
Although there is currently no proof for this, it seems logical to expect
that the ANC was a potential target of the NSA, especially since they were
suspected from having strong connections with left-wing and even
In this context it would be interesting to know whether the NSA had
deliberately weakened the PX-1000's cipher, in order to monitor the ANC
communications. It would also be interesting to know whether the ANC
had been using the NSA-weakened version,
or instead the original one with the much stronger DES algorithm.
During Mandela's imprisonment, a strong worldwide anti-apartheids
movement was led from the UK and The Netherlands. In the Netherlands,
the movement was headed by Connie Braam who had recruted an army of
volunteers for the underground covert operations in South Africa.
As part of these operations, she had been actively looking
for suitable communications equipment.
In her book Operatie Vula, Conny Braam explains how one of
her people met a guy, by the name of Floris, in a pub in Amsterdam,
who allegedly had developed the PX-1000 .
From him they learned that the device had been taken off the market
as its encryption was too strong. It had been replaced by a calculator
but he suggested to find the older version with built-in crypto.
In 1986, the calculator version of the PX-1000 had meanwhile been
replaced by the new NSA-weakened PX-1000Cr.
Later in her book (p. 86) Braam confirms that Floris had been able
to get hold of a couple of the older crypto-capable PX-1000
versions, which indicates that they were aware of the difference
between the two versions. We may therefore assume that the anti-apartheid
movement used the more secure version of the PX-1000
and had outsmarted the NSA.
➤ More about operation Vula
- Marcel Metze, Ingelijfd door de NSA
De Groene Amsterdammer. 29 January 2014. Embedded in the NSA (Dutch).
- Ben Brücker, Government intervention on consumer crypto hardware
A look at the PX-1000 before and after the NSA's involvement.
July 2014. Bachelor Thesis, Radboud University, Nijmegen (Netherlands).
- Wikipedia, Data Encryption Standard
Retrieved January 2016.
- Wikipedia, Nelson Mandela
Retrieved November 2013.
- Conny Braam, Operatie Vula
1992, Dutch. ISBN 978-9029083362. p. 66.
Reprinted 2006, Dutch. ISBN 978-9045700465.
English version 'Operation Vula', April 2005, ISBN 978-1919931708.
- Argos, Philips, TextLite en Amerikaanse Spionage
NPO Radio 1 broadcast, Saturday 20 April 2019, 14:00-15:00 (Dutch).
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© Crypto Museum. Created: Thursday 14 January 2016. Last changed: Monday, 22 April 2019 - 08:44 CET.