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Important notice — The information on this page is based on the classical understanding of the Enigma model names, such as Enigma A, Enigma B, Enigma C, etc. Recently discovered documents have shown however, that some of these model names are incorrect. This affects in particular our view on the printing Enigma machines (Schreibende Enigma) and the early glowlamp-based machines. For this reason, the information on our Enigma pages will gradually be revised over the coming months. — Crypto Museum — January 2019
Enigma Family Tree
Version 0.14 - 10 September 2009

This page shows all currently known Enigma models and how they are related to each other, in the form of a family tree. The family tree is the result of a co-operation between Paul Reuvers and Frode Weierud and is subject to copyright. If you want to use it for your own publication, please read the conditions and the disclaimer below. The diagram is available as a hi-res PDF file [A]. Please hover over any of the balloons in the diagram, or click an item, for further information.

Enigma Enigma A Enigma Enigma M4 Enigma T Prototype Zählwerk Enigma Zählwerk Enigma Enigma G Enigma G Enigma H Enigma B Enigma B Enigma C Enigma C Enigma C Enigma D Enigma K Swiss K Enigma KD Enigma Z30 Enigma Z30 Enigma M1 Enigma M2 Enigma M3 Reichswehr D

How to use the tree
The table consists of a number of circular 'balloons' that each describe a single Enigma model. We've tried to provide as much information as possible both inside and outside the balloons. Arrows are used to point to descendants and variants of a particular machine.

Inside each balloon are three pieces of information. The topmost one is the official model number (if known) that was used in brochures and offerings.

At the centre is the popular name by which the machine is commonly known. In many cases this is a single letter, for example: Enigma Z or Enigma M4.

At the bottom is the internal designator used by the manufacturer in internal documents and drawings (Ch. xx).

At the top left is the year of development or introduction shown in red. The small green number to the right of it, shows how many machines of this model were made on average (if known). At the bottom right are two numbers printed in blue. The topmost one shows the number of contacts on each wheel. Just below that is the number of turnover notches on each wheel.

All information is believed to be correct at the time of writing but there is no guarantee that this is the case, nor that the information is suitable for any purpose whatsoever. Please note that this page is subject to continuous changes without notice. Under no circumstances can we be held responsible for the information presented here. If you have additional information, or if you believe that some of the information is incorrect, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Preliminary information
The tree is largely based on many years of historical research of the Enigma, that is currently being carried out by Frode Weierud in Switzerland Norway. The full results of his research are expected in the form of a future publication in Cryptologia. Until that time, the tree may change regularly as new information is discovered. The bottom right of the tree shows the current version number and release date. This information is also printed at the top of this page.

Conditions for using the Enigma Family Tree
Please note that the copyright of the Enigma Family Tree belongs to Paul Reuvers and Frode Weierud. If you want to use it in your own publication, you may do so without prior permission, if you meet all of the following conditions:

  • It is not used for commercial purposes.
  • You do not modify or alter the tree.
  • You do not remove or alter the copyright notice.
  • You show the version number and release date.
  • You give full credits to the authors plus a link to this page.
  • You state that this is preliminary information.
If any of the above conditions can not be met, you should contact us first in order to ask for permission. When requesting permission, please provide as much information about yourself and your intended publication as possible.

  1. Enigma Family Tree
Further information
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© Crypto Museum. Created: Thursday 10 September 2009. Last changed: Sunday, 27 January 2019 - 12:42 CET.
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