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HF/DF   huff-duff
High Frequency direction finding - this page is a stub

HF/DF, commonly known as huff-duff, is the abbreviation of High Frequency Direction Finding, and refers to a system, developed in the UK during WWII, to quickly and accurately determine the position of enemy ships – especially during the Battle of the Atlantic – where it contributed to an estimated 24% of all U-boats sunk [2]. The system is based on a 1926 development by Robert Watson-Watt, and was further developed by the French engineer Henri Busignies prior to WWII.

This place currently acts as a placeholder for current and future information about HF/DF and the FH4 receiver. For a detailed description of the FH4 and its operation during WWII, we highly recommend visiting Arthur Bauer's website [3].

Also highly recommended is Arthur's book Funkpeilung als alliierte Waffe gegen deutsche U-Boote 1939-1945 (in German language), in which he gives a detailed account on how HF/DF was used against the German U-boats during WWII. It also describes the FH4 receiver and the special direction finding antenna. This book is now available as a PDF download from Arthur's website [4].

The image on the right shows the famous British FH4 HF/DF device, as it is on display on the BMS Belfast boat museum in the UK [2].
Photograph by Rémi Kaupp - via Wikipedia [2]

  1. Arthur O. Bauer, Funkpeilung als alliierte Waffe gegen deutsche U-Boote 1939-1945
    ISBN 3-00-002142-6. January 1997. In German Language.
    Available as PDF from the above link.

  2. Wikipedia, High-frequency direction finding
    Retrieved December 2016.

  3. Arthur O. Bauer, Huff Duff versus German u-boat wireless communications 1939-1945
    Retrieved December 2020.

  4. Arthur O. Bauer, HF/DF An Allied Weapon against German U-Boats 1939-1945
    27 December 2004.

  5. Arthur O. Bauer, Aspects of the German Naval Communications Research Establishment
    27 December 2004.

  6. Harald Sack, Henri Busignies and the Development of the Huff-Duff System
    SciHi Blog. 29 December 2016.
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© Crypto Museum. Created: Saturday 17 December 2016. Last changed: Thursday, 24 December 2020 - 13:27 CET.
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