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Cryptographic processor

CYPRIS, the abbreviation of Cryptographic RISC, is a programmable versatile cryptographic pro­cessor, developed in 1992 by the Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) of Lockheed Martin Corporation in Camden (New Jersey, USA), under contract of the US National Security Agency (NSA). It was commercially available to third parties for the deve­lop­ment of encryption solutions for commercial and civil government customers, as well as for the Department of Defense (DoD).

CYPRIS can be added to existing platforms as a co-processor and takes away the burden of executing encryption algorithms from the main processor. Unlike traditional crypto-processors, most of which contain only a single algorithm, CYPRIS offers a suite of algorithms and can be reprogrammed to support emerging standards.

At the core is a customized high-performance RISC core. At a clock speed of 40 MHz, it offers a throughput of 40 Mb/s for Type 1 algorithms.

Prototype chips were manufactured by VLSI – an independent semiconductor fabrication plant, also known as a fab – in 1.0-micron technology. The first samples became available in week 23 of 1992, and were used at Lockheed Martin for the development of a technology demonstrator in the form of a functional KG-84C replacement.

In 1995, the chip was released to external developers as part of an evaluation board. The chip was later made in 0.8-micron technology, with protype samples becoming available on 1 April 1996 and the first production run on 1 June 1996. The chip was available in three form factors: as a 176-pin TQFP, as a 180-pin PGA and as a bare die. For large quantities, the latter could be packaged by the customer, or could be directly bonded to the base printed circuit board (PCB).

Compatible devices on this website
KY-57 (VINSON) Wide-band Voice and Data Encryption Unit
KY-99 (MINTERM) Narrow-band Voice and Data Terminal
RAILMAN embeddable cryptographic processor with SAVILLE
The encryption algorithms listed below, are implemented in CYPRIS. Note that some of these algorithms (from DES onwards) were not part of the initial specification, but were added later.

  • Bayless
  • Byteman
  • Cordoba
  • Crayon (4 modes)
  • Keesee
  • Padstone (2 modes)
  • Cardholder 1
  • Cardigan 1
  • Arcfour 1
  1. Not part of the original requirements, but added later.

Evaluation board
In 1995, Lockheed Martin released the evaluation board shown below. Implemented as an extended ISA Bus card for a (then) regualar PC, it comes with instruction and data memory and has two serial ports for debugging and for connecting CYPRIS to the outside world. According to the text in the PCB's bottom left corner, it was developed by C. Puschak, J. Ausso and A. Zieger.

  • Device
    Cryptographic processor
  • Purpose
    Embedding in cryptographic appliences
  • Name
  • Designator
  • Order No.
  • Year
  • Contractor
  • Manufacturer
    Lockheed Martin
  • Foundry
  • Package
    176 TQFP, 180 PGA, Bare die
  • Price
    US$ 40-250 (1995) 1
  1. Price in 2015, depending on ordered quantity, varying from US$ 250 for single evaluation samples, to US$ 40 at quantities up from 20,000 [5].

Design features
  • 512-word instruction page cache
  • 256-word zero-wait data RAM
  • 32-word × 16 bit, 4-port register file
  • CPU permute logic
  • 2 × serial port
  • 2 × 16-bit parallel port
  • Memory speed control registers
  • 16-word PC stack
  • Seven software interrupts
  • 320-word C-unit RAM
  • Single clock cycle execution
  • 14 control/status registers
  • Built-in integrity checks
  • Watchdog timers
  • Data/instruction parity
  • User/supervisor modes
Possible applications
  • Workstation information security
  • Emulation key generator
  • Encryption of asynchonous transfer mode
  • Encryption of telemetry
  • Encryption of satellite link
  • Transmission and communication security for radio
  • Interoperability with legacy key generators
  • Avionic systems
  • Network and multilevel security
  • field-upgradable systems
  • Algorithm-agile systems
  • Technology upgrades
  • System-cost reductions
  • Classified chip reductions
  • Use of dynamic encryption algorithms
  1. CYPRIS, An Application Specific Reconfigurable Processor - presentation
    Michael Stebnisky, Lockheed Martin, Advanced Technology Laboratories.
    15 September 1998. 1

  2. CYPRIS INFOSEC Crypto Card - Hardware Technical Reference Guide
    Lockheed Martin. Part # 001004. Version 1.0. 26 July 1997. 1
  1. Retrieved from archived version at WayBack Machine.

  1. CYPRIS Reprogrammable Cryptography for ...
    Lockheed Martin, 3 February 1997 — 19 May 1998. 1,2

  2. CYPRIS Product Description and Developer's Toolkit
    Lockheed Martin, 26 July 1997. 1,2

  3. Wikipedia, CYPRIS (microchip)
    Visited 12 May 2024.

  4. Michael Stebnisky, CYPRIS, An Application Specific Reconfigurable Processor
    Lockheed Martin, Advanced Technology Laboratories. 15 September 1998. 1

  5. Lockheed Martin, CYPRIS Chip Price List<>
    16 November 1995. 1

  6. Lockheed Martin, CYPRIS Deloper's Toolkit Price List<>
    17 October 1995. 1
  1. Retrieved from archived version at WayBack Machine.
  2. No longer available from 30 April 1999 onwards.

Further information
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Crypto Museum. Created: Sunday 12 May 2024. Last changed: Monday, 13 May 2024 - 13:38 CET.
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