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The Hagelin Cryptographers C-52 and CX-52
Bart Wessel · 24 February 2021

This paper (in English language) contains detailed technical descriptions and observations of the Hagelin C-52 and CX-52 cipher machines, of which many types, models, versions, variants and configurations exist. Below is an overview of the documents that are cited in the paper.

Abstract
While the C-52 and CX-52 devices enter the open market and are exhibited in museums, it is hard to the untrained eye to tell the differences. There is a lot of confusion, and half-truths muddle the waters even further. It turns out that there is only a limited number of standard configurations of the C-52 and CX-52 machines.

These 'models' are described in detail, to enable the reader to identify machines he/she comes across. All the configurable components are described, to aid in the understanding of their differences and of the way the devices work.

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References
Consulted documents from the Crypto Museum archive
  1. The Hagelin Cryptographer, Type CX-52
    User Manual in English, French and German. 36 pages.
    D-035. Crypto AG, 1 January 1962.

  2. The Hagelin Cryptographer, Type CX-52 (photographs)
    Photographs belonging to the above manual [A]. 4 pages.
    Crypto AG. 16 January 1951.

  3. Instructions for the tape controlled cryptographer CX/RT
    User Manual for the CX-52 with random tape (RT) (English). 7 pages.
    No. 3165-a. Crypto AG (OST/iz), June 1968.

  4. Spare parts catalogue CX-52 (No 21101 etc)
    Spare parts list with instructions in English, French and German. 35 pages.
    L-061 (S/N 61851). Crypto AG. 1 January 1962.

  5. RT/CX One Time Tape auxiliary device
    CX-52/RT sales brochure (English). 3 pages.
    No. 3093 A. Crypto AG (Sn/hf), December 1958.

  6. Appareillage pour Chiffrement à Bandes Perforées
    Instructions for CX-52/RT (RT/CX), B-621 and PEB-61 (French).
    No. 2268. Crypto AG, Oskar Sturzinger. February 1969. 5 pages.

  7. Die Klaviatur B-621 (B-62)
    B-621 (B-62) keyboard attachment for CX-52 (German). 14 pages (with schematics).
    No. 1188a. Crypto AG, Oskar Sturzinger. June 1968.

  8. CX-52 Condensed Instructions
    No. 3035b. Crypto AG, BH. November 1957.

  9. Description of Cryptographers 'Hagelin' Type CX-52
    No. 3027. Crypto AG, Oskar Stürzinger, August 1956.

  10. CX-52 Service Instructions and Maintenance for Ciphering Machines Type CX-52
    No. 3099. Crypto AG, BH, January 1959.

  11. Spare parts catalogue for Hagelin Ciphering Machine Type CX-52
    No. L-013. Crypto AG, May 1956.

  12. Cryptographer type CX-52 - Specification
    No. I-3006c. Crypto AG, Oskar Stürzinger, November 1957.

  13. Service Instructions for keyboard unit B-52
    No. E-3121a. Crypto AG, Oskar Stürzinger, 12 November 1956 — July 1961.

  14. Ersatzteilkatalog (B-52) (spare parts catalogue)
    No. L-027. Crypto AG, 10 October 1957.

  15. Keyboard attachment unit type B-52
    No. 3052a. Crypto AG, Sn, January 1958.

  16. C-52 Trouble Shooting
    No. 3225a. Crypto AG, date unknown.

  17. Usage of Hagelin cryptographer CX-52
    No. <unknown>. 25 November 1964.

  18. Description Technique des Cryptographes Type CX-52
    No. 2027. Crypto AG (BH.Sn), February 1955.

  19. Bedienungsanweisung für das Gerät 'CR-2' (CX-52/RT)
    ZB6, BACR68, S/N 533. Bundeswehr (Germany), 1968.

  20. L'emploi de Bandes Aléatoires ... des Machines à Chiffrer C4 et CX-52
    No. 2084-a. Crypto AG (BH/iz), February 1969.(in French langage).
Consulted documents from other sources
  1. Binder with brochures 1
    No. 3337. Crypto AG, January 1962 (6 pages).
     3198
    Pocket Cryptographer Type CD-57
     3011
    Manually Operated Cipher Machine C-52
     3162a
    The Keyboard Unit Type B-621 (B-62)
     3134e
    The Tape Translator PEB-61

  2. The 'Hagelin' Cryptographer, Type CX-52. Instructions for Operation 1
    No. 3035. Crypto AG, May 1955. 16 pages.

  3. The 'Hagelin' Cryptographer. Type C-52. Instructions for Operation 2
    D-036. Crypto AG, 6 July 1960. 40 pages.

  4. Operating Instructions (C-52) 2
    No. D-3036 (3B036a). Crypto AG, 6 July 1960. 18 pages.

  5. Teile-Katalog, C-52 (No. 20501 etc.), No. 063697 2
    L-063. Crypto AG, date unknown. 46 pages.

  6. Service and maintenance instructions for Ciphering Machine Type C-52 2
    No. 3108b. Crypto AG, June 1968. 10 pages.

  7. The 'Hagelin Cryptographer', Type CX-52 - Instructions for Operation 2
    No. B-3131. Crypto AG, 1 January 1961. 40 pages.

  8. Instructions pour Appareils CX/RT 2
    A-2165. Crypto AG, August 1963. 7 pages.

  9. The 'Hagelin Cryptographer' Type CX-52-M. Instructions for Operation 3
    3175. Crypto AG, date unknown. 14 pages.
     Includes Note No. 354 - CX-52 A

  10. Erste Pannenhilfe für das Gerät C-52 2
    First aid for the device C-52 (in German language).
    Nr. 1225. Crypto AG, March 1969. 7 pages.

  11. Pricelist for crptographer CX-52 4
    No. 3803. Crypto AG, 1 January 1955. 1 page.

  12. Usage of Hagelin cryptographer CX-52 2
    No. V-7000e. Crypto AG, October 1962. 27 pages.

  13. Effect of computers on the security of Hagelin cryptographer C-52 1
    No. R-7002e. Crypto AG, October 1962. 7 pages.

  14. The Hagelin Cryptographers 1
    AB Cryptoteknik, 25 March 1948. 4 pages.

  15. Hagelin Crypto C-52 2
    Cryto AG, date unknown. 1 page.

  16. CX-RT Zeichnung 2
    E-755. Crypto AG, date unknown. 5 pages.
  1. Courtesy National Cryptologic Museum (NCM) - Louis Kruh Collection. June 2019.
  2. Document kindly provided by Gerhard Sulger-Buel. April 2020.
  3. Document kindly provided by Marc Sachs. 1 September 2019.
  4. Document obtained from the National Security Agency (NSA).

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Crypto Museum. Created: Thursday 11 March 2021. Last changed: Friday, 30 April 2021 - 18:36 CET.
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